Scientific studies

It’s not magic, it’s advanced science at your fingertips!

The study of polyploidy, the phenomenon in which a species has more than two sets of chromosomes, has been a fascinating adventure that has allowed researchers to uncover deep secrets of plant genetics and ultimately revolutionize agriculture.

The history of polyploidy in science dates back to the early 20th century, when botanists began to notice that some plants appeared to have extra chromosomes.

The discovery of polyploid plants was a revolutionary moment, as it challenged existing ideas about genetics and inheritance.

In 1920, Swedish botanist Albert Blakeslee and his student Isabelle Ephrussi published a study on induced polyploidy in Datura plants, a type of herbaceous plant. It was then that the idea that genome duplication could be an important driver of evolution and speciation was established.

In 1923, Lionel de la Torre and Harold E. Moore Jr. discovered that colchicine, an alkaloid found in plants of the genus Colchicum, could induce polyploidy by interfering with the formation of the mitotic spindle, thus inhibiting cell division during meiosis and causing the formation of cells with duplicate chromosomes.

The application of colchicine and other similar chemical agents has since been used in numerous plants to induce polyploidy, including fruits, flowers, and cereals.

Artificial polyploidy has been essential for the development of new plant varieties and the improvement of existing ones. A notable example is wheat, where polyploidy has contributed to the characteristics that make wheat such a valuable crop today.

Today, advances in genomics and molecular genetics have allowed scientists to better understand the processes and implications of polyploidy. It is clear that polyploidy plays a crucial role in plant evolution and diversity. These studies have also allowed the creation of more resistant and productive crops.

Now, on our journey through the history of polyploidy, we come to cannabis. Its genome and the potential for polyploidy in this plant are still largely unexplored, and researchers are eager to understand how polyploidy can improve the properties of cannabis and we also want to know more, so we get to work .

From early Datura experiments to current cannabis research, polyploidy remains a powerful and exciting tool in botany and plant breeding.

The papers listed below represent the cutting edge of research on polyploidy and its potential in the plant world. These works inspired us for this project.

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"Characteristics of the Diploid, Triploid, and Tetraploid Versions of a Cannabigerol | Dominant F1 Hybrid Industrial Hemp Cultivar, Cannabis sativa ‘Stem Cell CBG’ CRAWFORD 2021."

This article examines the characteristics of an industrial hemp variety called 'Stem Cell CBG' with different ploidy levels (diploid, triploid and tetraploid) and its influence on the production of cannabinoids and terpenes. It focuses on identifying physical and chemical variations to improve the selection of varieties for different uses. It is one of the most used and renowned papers on polyploidism in cannabis.

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"The polyploidy and its key role in plant breeding SATTLER 2016"

This article offers an updated review on polyploidy in plants and its importance in breeding programs. Polyploids, organisms with multiple sets of chromosomes, are common in nature and in crops. These organisms show increased vigor and have been used by breeders to obtain improved plants with greater yield, resistance and product quality.
Additionally, polyploidy allows gene transfer between species and the production of seedless varieties. The article explores the origins of polyploids, their classification and their revolutionary role in the improvement of various crops.

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"Polyploidization for the Genetic Improvement of Cannabis sativa"

This article explores the use of polyploidization to genetically improve the Cannabis sativa (marijuana or hemp) plant. It highlights how this process can increase the production of cannabinoids, terpenes and improve resistance to diseases and environmental stress. Its potential to facilitate gene transfer between cannabis varieties is also mentioned.
Polyploidization is seen as a promising tool to genetically improve this plant and expand its industrial and medicinal uses.

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"Induction of Polyploidy and Its Effect on Cannabis sativa L."

This article focuses on the uses of polyploidization in the Cannabis sativa plant, known as Marihuana or hemp.
Polyploidization involves duplicating the number of chromosomes in the plant, which can have a significant impact on its characteristics. This study investigates how this process affects Cannabis sativa, especially in terms of cannabinoid content terpenes, disease resistance and yield. Methods to induce polyploidization are explored and the results obtained are analyzed.
Overall, the article highlights the potential of polyploidization as a tool to genetically improve this plant and develop varieties with specific characteristics for different purposes.

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"Effect of Induced Polyploidy on Some Biochemical Parameters in Cannabis sativa L"

The results of this study provide valuable information on how polyploidization can alter the biochemical profile of Cannabis sativa, which may have significant implications in terms of its medical and recreational uses. In summary, the article analyzes the effects of induced polyploidization on some biochemical parameters of Cannabis sativa, which may contribute to a better understanding of how this technique can influence the characteristics and properties of the plant.

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"Advances and Perspectives in Tissue Culture and Genetic Engineering of Cannabis"

The article ”Advances and perspectives in tissue culture and genetic engineering” explores how to apply biotechnological tools to genetically improve Cannabis sativa. Due to its growing demand in medicine, recreation and industry, new genotypes with desirable characteristics and greater production of secondary metabolites are sought to be introduced. The study reviews various techniques used, such as micropropagation, cell culture and genetic manipulation, and highlights the obstacles encountered in the process. Promising new techniques, such as CRISPR gene editing and hairy root cultivation, are also discussed.

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"The Effect of Polyploidy Induction on Some Growth Parameters in Cannabis sativa L."

This study compares Cannabis plants with different ploidy levels in terms of growth and biochemical parameters.Tetraploid and mixoploid plants were achieved, and their ploidy level was confirmed by flow cytometry analysis. The results showed that tetraploid plants had a significant increase in the fresh weight of roots and shoots compared to diploids. Furthermore chimeras showed significant changes in carbohydrate, sugar, and protein content compared to diploids and tetraploids. In summary, ploidy affects both the growth and biochemical traits of Cannabis plants

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"Gene Dosage at the Autoflowering Locus Effects Flowering Timing and Plant Height in Triploid Cannabis"

In this study it is sought to develop cannabis cultivars that flower early to avoid adverse weather conditions at the end of the season. The effect of genetic dosage on the flowering time of hybrids between autoflowering and photoperiod-sensitive plants was evaluated. Autoflowering x photoperiod-sensitive hybrids were found to flower earlier than homozygous photoperiod-sensitive plants. Also, it was identified that decreasing the dosage of the photoperiod-sensitive allele in triploid genotypes accelerates flowering. These findings suggest a reliable approach to developing early cannabis cultivars for flower production.

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"Effect of Induced Polyploidy on Some Biochemical Parameters in Cannabis sativa L."

This study aims to test the effectiveness of colchicine to induce polyploidy in Cannabis sativa L. and analyze its effects of primary and secondary metabolites. Shoot tips were treated with different concentrations of colchicine and it was found that polyploidization resulted in significant changes in sugar, protein and flavonoid contents in mixoploid and tetraploid plants. However, the production of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) was not beneficial in tetraploid plants for commercial use, with mixoploids being more suitable. These results suggest that polyploidization may have specific applications in the improvement of Cannabis sativa.

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"Studies on Colchicine Induced Chromosome Doubling for Enhancement of Quality Traits in Ornamental Plant"

Polyploidy is essential in horticulture to create new ornamental varieties with desirable characteristics. It can occur naturally or be artificially induced through chromosome duplication. Colchicine is a mitotic inhibitor commonly used to induce polyploidy. Different parts of the plant can be used for this purpose. Flow cytometry and chromosome counting are common methods to determine the ploidy level in plants. Polyploidy can result in significant improvements in the size, vigor and quality of ornamental plants.

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